Download PDF Phytosociology of the Beech (Fagus) Forests in East Asia (Geobotany Studies)
A general comparison is provided by synoptic Table 1, which details the frequencies of ca. The book, which is the fruit of a major international collaboration, presents a synthesis of extended original investigations by the authors and hardly accessible specialist literature. Powered by Koha. Log in to your account. Advanced search Tag cloud. Login: Password:. By: Hukusima, Tukasa [author.
Contributor s : Matsui, Tetsuya [author.
- Blindsided: How Business and Society is Shaped by Our Irrational and Unpredictable Behaviour.
- Temperate forests in continental East Asia?
- Phytosociology of the Beech (Fagus) Forests in East Asia | Tukasa Hukusima | Springer!
The worsening of the climate led to a retreat of the Indo-Malesian flora, while the Arcto-Tertiary flora advanced. Nevertheless, the shrinking Tethys left behind a great basin stretching from Syria across Iraq and Persia as far as Afghanistan, which served as a barrier to the further penetration of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the Tertiary. The boundary between the Holarctic and Paleotropical kingdoms was probably established at that time Zohary, ; it still runs through southern Persia. As fossils indicate in the Pliocene, the Arcto-Tertiary flora was distributed somewhat farther south than it is today.
It was also richer in species, as can be seen from fossils of Dicksonia , Ginkgo , Glyptostrobus , and Libocedrus. In Persia, however, the nucleus was probably limited to the Hyrcanian district in the Pliocene. Today xerophytic descendants of the Arcto-Tertiary flora are considered Irano-Turanian species and are distributed over the arid parts of the Euxino-Caucasian-Hyrcanian subprovince and the mountain chains of the Zagros and Kurdistan species of Quercus , Pistacia , Rhamnus , Prunus , Cerasus , Amygdalus , and Acer.
The Indo-Malesian flora did not retreat entirely. A few species survived in the warm and protected coastal regions of the Black and Caspian Seas. With the further retreat of the Tethys, an Irano-Turanian flora of Mesogean origin was introduced into the Near and Middle East, spreading to newly emerging arid, often saline areas.
A distinct evolution of species within the Irano-Anatolian stock, mostly colonized from Persia, ensued. At the end of the Tertiary the vegetation of Persia and the entire Near East was probably very similar to the present vegetation, leaving aside the strong influence of human beings during the last two or three thousand years. One major question is to what extent the climate on Persian territory was affected by the Ice Age and consequently how climatic changes affected the flora.
The evidence suggesting extensive glaciation of the central Persian mountains is very slight.
- Guide Phytosociology of the Beech (Fagus) Forests in East Asia (Geobotany Studies)?
- Red-N-Gold: 66.
- 48 Thrills - A Glasgow Punk Tale.
Hopefully, on the botanical side, palynological research will provide some clarification. For the time being, however, all claims for a fundamentally different distribution of forests and scrub during a few epochs of the Pleistocene are purely speculative. The same is true for the period from the great thaw about 30, years ago to the end of the last Ice Age and through the postglacial period.
Phytosociology of the Beech (Fagus) Forests in East Asia | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
So far, the scant evidence derived from investigations e. Clarification of the evolution of vegetation on the Persian highland in the postglacial period is a pressing problem for future research. Such studies could reveal the extent to which human intervention has altered the ecosystems of Persia, and could provide information crucial for the regeneration of the damaged environment. Evolution of new species and centers of diversity in Persia.
According to Zohary ; , 20 to 25 percent of Persian flora consists of indigenous endemic species. Many of them form the nuclei of large genera, with clusters of closely related species that probably appeared relatively recently.
The genus Astragalus alone supposedly includes about species endemic to Persia, an estimate that would probably be somewhat reduced after a critical review. The middle elevations of the peripheral mountain ranges and the massifs of the central Persian highland are especially rich in endemic species. Most favourable for the adaptive evolution of a taxon are areas where a genus or a group of genera have limited competition and varied living conditions.
Frequently described examples include island flora and fauna e. As the Tethys receded, the newly exposed land was colonized mainly by species of Mesogean stock. The uniform conditions on the plains with their extremely arid continental climate, permitted only a few forms of life. Hence the variety of biotopes, which might have allowed a further subdivision of species, is low. Conditions in the mountain systems are much more diverse and favourable, especially at higher altitudes, which receive more annual precipitation and are subject to lower average summer temperatures.
The isolated locations of these mountain stocks makes possible, as with island floras, a further subdivision of species. At least they testify that in the named taxa an adaptive radiation occurred on Persian territory. Nine different climatic zones, or large ecosystems zonobiomes; Walter, , can be distinguished between the equator and the poles.
For each there is a typical zonal vegetation. The interior Persian highland belongs to the desert and semidesert zone zonobiome VII, with cold winters.
In humid mountain areas it borders on the zone of mixed sclerophyllous woodlands and conifers zonobiome IV, e. Sometimes, less because of climate than because of special soil parameters e. In Persia the extensive endorheic salt marshes in the arid basins are host to such azonal vegetation e. The mangroves at a few places on the Persian Gulf coast should also be considered azonal vegetation. Zonal vegetation can also appear outside the characteristic climatic zone if specific local conditions of a biotope duplicate those of another climatic zone.
Phytosociology of the Beech (Fagus) Forests in East Asia
In the mountains the climate changes much more rapidly than on the plains, owing to rising altitudes. For that reason a clearer and sharper delineation of vegetation zones can be observed. From low to high altitudes hill, mountain, subalpine, alpine, and nival belts can be distinguished. Rassegna di archeologia. Pisa, ; br. Italia s. An International Journal of Codicology and Palaeography. Volume 6. Rivista annuale diretta da Mario Capasso e Francesco Magistrale. Volume Auday, Bryan C.
Used; Acceptable. Paperback; English language; a fair reading copy. Your book will be securely packed and promptly dispatched from our UK warehouse.
All international orders are sent Royal Mail airmail. Coetzee, J. Coetzee on the limitation page;After crossing oceans, a man and a boy arrive in a new land. Here they are each assigned a name and an age, and held in a camp in the desert while they learn Spanish, the language of their new country. Nobel Prize winner J. A collection of three stories. Has never been read.
All books are bubble-wrapped and placed in a sturdy box for shipping. I do NOT use padded envelopes. Orders are normally processed within 24 hours.
Greenwood, Deborah. For Only You. Collages with vintage sheet music and piano roll paper. Machine stitching. Reverse pleat binding. Stiff front and back cover of similar collages. Laid in box tray with matching collage sleeve. Signed and dated by the artist.