AFS Paper Airplanes: Incredible Designs You Can Make at Home

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Of these, the most costly ingredients are the stucco, flour and binder. During processing, the binder, usually colloidal silica, undergoes an irreversible reaction to form silica gel. Thus, it is not feasible to reclaim the binder. The stucco and flour are used as aggregates with the binder to produce the shell. These are the materials that this project will focus on. The typical materials include mullite, fused silica and zircon.

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The zircon is a minor ingredient by volume, but due to its high cost, it is of great interest. The fused silica and mullite are used in much higher quantities, and they also constitute a significant expense. The first step in the reclamation process would consist of the separation of stucco and flour particles ideally to their initial size distributions from the spent shell material.

There are multiple mechanical methods that are currently used for the separation of sand and binder in sand casting. In addition, there is a significant expertise on particle grinding in the ceramics and mining industry. It is anticipated that some of these methods will be applicable to the existing project. For the purposes of this project, separation is not being considered, but this would be a likely follow up project in the future.

Phase transformations in the ceramic can occur during the thermal cycle of the investment casting shell. Zircon and pure mullite are not anticipated to have phase transformations. On the other hand, fused silica is known to transform to crystalline silica in the form of cristobalite. An additional variable in fused silica consists of the alloys produced. These are clearly beyond the formation temperature into cristobalite.

There are regulatory trends to have foundries reduce their solid waste streams and spent ceramics constitute the largest waste stream for investment casters.

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The reclamation would help foundries meet the regulatory targets. Lastly, if investment casters reclaim their ceramics, this would also simplify their supply chain.

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They would be able to better control their inventories and depend less on the vagaries of the market and potential supply disruptions. Work performed in Poland showed that the use of mechanically reclaimed shell materials used in superalloy casting can produce shells with equal or better green strength by the use of reclaimed flours and stucco, but for high-temperature strengths, only the shells without reclaimed flour matched hot strengths. Reclamation of the ceramic materials would save in both the purchase of new raw materials and the disposal of the spent materials.

The average consumption of non-zircon ceramics by these facilities was , lbs per year.

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Thus, even if partial reclamation was successful, it would still be in the millions of dollars. Furthermore, once the ceramics are ground, it would be possible to look at zircon separation and zircon-specific reuse would greatly increase the economic impact. Furthermore, this value also excludes shipping and disposal savings. These materials will be the basis of any papers presented at the Casting Congress or published in journals, the materials to be generated for CMI training and for the poster presentations.

Results on milestones will be published at the earliest opportunity mainly through AFS channels. Status Update: The project and initial testing is now underway creating prototype molds in fused silica stucco and aluminosilicates stucco to make the MOR modulus of rupture testing bars, with an active steering committee determining slurry formulations to be tested. Those wishing more information about the project should contact the Steering Committee chair, Matt Cavins, at mcavins ofalloncasting.

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Victor Okhuysen at vfokhuysen csupomona. Coordinator: Richard Rick B. Sulfur is generally considered a tramp element in cast iron, and its level must be controlled. When manganese is not present at sufficient concentrations, sulfur reacts with iron to produce a low-melting phase that can produce hot-shortness in iron castings.

Consequently, the industry has always added manganese to control sulfur in cast iron. Various formulae have been promulgated in the industry for balancing MnS in cast iron. Many employ a stoichiometric relationship between MnS, requiring an excess Mn content to avoid FeS formation. Some simply employ a MnS ratio such as 5—7 to assure that no FeS forms. Others advocate that the sulfur content must simply be at or above 0. With the exception of a few investigators, none has considered the solubility of MnS from thermodynamic principles.

Based on the literature review and the experimental work, it was possible to define what MnS concentrations might produce the best properties with regard to strength. The results of the research on MnS in gray iron raise many questions and, also, new ideas for future research. Several of those ideas were discussed at the Spring 5R Committee meeting. The one that was selected for this phase included the following activity to develop a better understanding of the strengthening effects at the optimum MnS balancing.


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While the current study showed that maximum strength occurs at compositions close to the solubility limit of MnS, it is not clear what microstructural features were optimized. The numerous metallographic samples that are available from the previous study are suitable for the proposed research. The samples will be used to determine the microhardness of the pearlitic matrix. These data will be compared with the bulk hardness of the samples and correlated with the tensile strength of the alloys in order to determine whether changes in the pearlitic matrix contributed to the loss in strength in alloys with poorer MnS balancing.

The same metallographic samples will also be used to perform a broader characterization of the graphite structure, since the several observations from the previous study strongly suggest that the variations in strength are tied to changes in the graphite structure.

Features such as cell count, mixed graphite structures flake distribution types and the occurrence of spiky graphite morphology will be investigated as a function of MnS concentrations and section size. These findings were presented at the th Metalcasting Congress, Paper A paper based upon this report will be published in the IJMC.

Those wishing more information about the project or how to participate as a sponsor should contact the Steering Committee chair Leonard Winardi at LWinardi charlottepipe. There are multiple theories, however, regarding how best to account for and benefit from this aging process. One benefit may be a reduction in machining tool wear.

Improved tool life has been found to occur in aged castings in multiple machining trials over the years. The literature review provides two theories regarding the mechanism of gray cast iron aging, precipitation of submicroscopic nitrides and residual stress relief. The case for nitride precipitation rests ultimately on limited tensile data, which, with its large variation, needs a larger study to properly validate.

Metalcasting Industry Research

The case for stress relief relies primarily on the aging effect found in the resonant frequency RF of gray cast iron and the effect of stress inducing processing shot blasting and machining to the RF and tensile strength. Ultimately, the testing protocol documented here will need to be repeated with ductile iron. This study will attempt to determine the optimal balance of aging, part and NVH noise, vibration, harshness performance, and also secondary operations versus processing limitations and inventory requirements or work in process WIP costs.

A paper was presented at the th Metalcasting Congress, and a paper based upon this report will be published in the IJMC.

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Those wishing more information about the project or how to participate as a sponsor should contact the Steering Committee chair Matt Meyer at Matthew. Meyer kohler. Miskinis waupacafoundry. It is also a key resource to the aluminum classes taught by the Institute and many of our universities with metalcasting and metallography classes. The chart features grain size and modification photomicrographs with numerical rating which both casting buyers and casting suppliers utilize.

An additional important microstructural feature has emerged over the past several years—secondary dendrite spacing or SDAS—which has a direct correlation with solidification rate and subsequent mechanical properties. The objective of this applied research is to measure SDAS as a function of solidification rate and then establish and publish microstructures on a range of SDAS results which can be incorporated into the renewed and republished wall chart.

Robin Foley.

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